Growth Factors in Wound Management

Growth Factors, Production and Known Effects in Wound Healing

Growth FactorProduced byCurrently Known Effects
Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)Platelets, macrophagesStimulates fibroblasts to secrete collagenase to degrade the matrix during the remodeling phase. Stimulates keratinocyte and fibroblast proliferation. May reduce healing time when applied topically.
Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)Platelets, macrophages, lymphocytes, hepatocytesTGF-a: Mitogenic and chemotactic for keratinocytes and fibroblasts
TGFPlatelets, macrophages, lymphocytes, hepatocytesTGF-b1 and TGF-b2: Promotes angiogenesis, up-regulates collagen production and inhibits degradation, promotes chemo attraction of inflammatory cells.
TGFPlatelets, macrophages, lymphocytes, hepatocytesTGF-b3 (antagonist to TGF-b1 and b2): Has been found in high levels in fetal scarless wound healing and has promoted scarless healing in adults experimentally when TGF-b1 and TGF-b2 are suppressed.
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)Endothelial cellsPromotes angiogenesis in hypoxic tissues.
Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF)Macrophages, mast cells, T-lymphocytesPromotes angiogenesis, granulation, and epithelialization via endothelial cell, fibroblast, and keratinocyte migration, respectively.
Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF)Platelets, macrophages, and endothelial cellsAttracts macrophages and fibroblasts to zone of injury. Promotes collagen and proteoglycan synthesis.
InterleukinsMacrophages, keratinocytes, endothelial cells, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, basophils, mast cellsIL-1: Proinflammatory, chemotactic for neutrophils, fibroblasts, and keratinocytes. Activates neutrophils
InterleukinsMacrophages, keratinocytes, endothelial cells, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, basophils, mast cellsIL-4: Activates fibroblast differentiation. Induces collagen and proteoglycan synthesis.
InterleukinsMacrophages, keratinocytes, endothelial cells, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, basophils, mast cellsIL-8: Chemotactic for neutrophils and fibroblasts.
Colony Stimulating Factors (CSF)Stromal cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, lymphocytesGranulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF): Stimulates granulocyte proliferation.
CSFStromal cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, lymphocytesGranulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF): Stimulates granulocyte and macrophage proliferation.
Keratinocyte growth factorFibroblastsStimulates keratinocyte migration, differentiation, and proliferation.

Source: “Wound Management to 2024”, Report #S251