Although some form of suturing wounds has been used for several thousand years, sutures can be troublesome. There are procedures in which sutures are too large or clumsy, and locations in which it is difficult for the surgeon to suture. They can lead to complications, such as intimal hyperplasia, in which cells respond to the trauma of the needle and thread by proliferating on the inside wall of the blood vessel, causing it to narrow at that point. This increases the risk of a blood clot getting stuck and obstructing blood flow. In addition, sutures may trigger an immune response, leading to inflamed tissue that also increases the risk of a blockage. These are some of the reasons why surgical adhesives are becoming increasingly popular.
As a logical derivative, surgeons want a product that is strong, easy-to-use and affordable, while being biocompatible and resorbable. Challenges to product development include that products not be derived from human or animal products (to avoid immunogenicity or viral transmission), not produce toxic byproducts and be readily delivered, applied and/or activated in use.
High strength adhesive alternatives developed by manufacturers for specific clinical uses include those made with forms of cyanoacrylate, urethane, and other new adhesive products based on existing biomaterial adhesives (e.g., fibrin and albumin compounds), and new polymer adhesives based on entirely new chemistries (e.g., polyurethanes, proteins from living organisms).
Source: MedMarket Diligence, LLC; Report #S190.
For complete coverage of high strength adhesives and other sealants/glues used in medical/surgical applications, see "Worldwide Surgical Sealants, Glues, Wound Closure and Anti-Adhesion Markets, 2010-2017", Report #S190.