Diseases and disorders of the spine are numerous and complex. The spine itself is a complex anatomy with structure and function that are susceptible to a wide range of conditions, whether by trauma or disease, that have been the focus of continued development of medical technology with the purpose of restoring (or approximating) as much of that structure and function as possible.
For the sake of illustration, below is a map of the diseases and disorders (including trauma) of the spine:
Source: Pending MedMarket Diligence Report #M520, "Worldwide Spine Surgery 2011: Products, Technologies, Markets & Opportunities, Worldwide, 2010-2020." (Publishing May/June 2011)